Article Abstract

Dietery factor obesity microenvironnement and breast cancer

Authors: Fatima Zahra Laamiri, Abdellatif Bouayad, Azzedine Otmani, Samir Ahid, Mustapha Mrabet, Amina Barkat


Background: Breast cancer is a multifactorial disease. Factors most often mentioned risks are those related to the environment, genetics, hormones and individual behaviors. Among these include alcohol, smoking, sedentary lifestyle and eating habits. Identification of eating and the role of nutritional factors may be involved in cancer risk have been studied extensively since nearly 40 years.
Purpose: We conducted a study of breast cancer type case-control with food frequency questionnaire to assess the causal relationship between dietary factor, obesity and breast cancer risk. Patients and methods: female patients with breast cancer were compared to healthy controls at the National Institute of Oncology of Rabat during 2008-2010 and were interviewed for epidemiological information and for their eating habits.
Results: A total of 800 women were included in this study (400 cases and 400 controls). Result of univariate analysis showed that significant factors associated with the etiologie of breast cancer: high body mass index (BMI) [odds ratio (OR) =1.30; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.25-1.37], red meat (OR =1.33; 95% CI, 1.27-1.40), processed meat (OR =1.44; 95% CI, 1.35-1.54), eggs (OR =1.20; 95% CI, 1.14-1.23), poultry (OR =0.70; 95% CI, 0.60-0.80), fish (OR =0.67; 95% CI, 0.61-0.73), fruit (OR =0.67; 95% CI, 0.62-0.72), and vegetable (OR=0.72; 95% CI, 0.67-0.78). Multivariate analysis indicated that a significantly elevated risk of contracting breast cancer was associated with higher BMI (OR =9.61; 95% CI, 6.1-15.15), red meat (OR =4.61; 95% CI, 2.26-9.44) and processed meat (OR =9.78; 95% CI, 4.73-20.24). In contrast consumption of fish (OR =0.07; 95% CI, 0.02-0.24), poultry (OR =0.61; 95% CI, 0.46-0.81), fruit (OR =0.001; 95% CI, 0.00-0.004), and vegetable (OR =0.82; 95% CI, 0.22-3.08) remained as significant beneficial factor associated with breast cancer.
Conclusions: This study is rather in favour of positive association between obesity, consumption of food rich in fatty matter and breast cancer, which is consistent with data from the literature using the same type of investigation. These results encourage increased cohort studies, case-control and experimentation in order to achieve a genuine code of cancer prevention, to define with precision the positive and negative.