Exploring breast with therapeutic ductoscopy
Breast lesions are thought to arise mostly from the epithelium of ductal lining. Conventional imaging could only show indirect images of suspected lesions which are confirmed by percutaneous biopsies. However, ductoscopy provides direct images of the ductal epithelium which is the source of most malignant and papillary lesions. As an advance of current ductoscopy systems, pathologic nipple discharge (PND) could be treated ductoscopically by miniaturized endo-baskets or wires. Our goal is to discuss current intraductal technology which enables diagnostic and therapeutic advance for breast lesions that cause nipple discharge.