Primary aldosteronism diagnostics: KCNJ5 mutations and hybrid steroid synthesis in aldosterone-producing adenomas
Primary aldosteronism (PA) is characterized by autonomous aldosterone production by renin-independent mechanisms and is most commonly sporadic. While 60–70% of sporadic PA can be attributed to bilateral hyperaldosteronism, the remaining 30–40% is caused by a unilateral aldosterone-producing adenoma (APA). Somatic mutations in or near the selectivity filter the KCNJ5 gene (encoding the potassium channel GIRK4) have been implicated in the pathogenesis of both sporadic and familial PA. Several studies using tumor tissue, peripheral and adrenal vein samples from PA patients have demonstrated that along with aldosterone, the hybrid steroids 18-hydroxycortisol (18OHF) and 18-oxocortisol (18oxoF) are a hallmark of APA harboring KCNJ5 mutations. Herein, we review the recent advances with respect to the molecular mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of PA and the steroidogenic fingerprints of KCNJ5 mutations. In addition, we present an outlook toward the future of PA subtyping and diagnostic work-up utilizing steroid profiling.