Nipple-areola complex reconstruction
Nipple areolar reconstruction (NAC) was introduced since 1940s and evolved as parallel with breast reconstruction since era of breast cancer treatment. It consists of nipple and areolar reconstruction. Ideal reconstruction of the NAC requires symmetry in position, size, shape, texture, and pigmentation and permanent projection. There are many innovative ways to create a nipple and each method has its unique characteristics that apply to certain breast types. NAC reconstruction techniques comprises of composite nipple grafts, local flap, flaps with autologous graft augmentation, flaps with alloplastic augmentation and flaps with allograft augmentation. Areolar reconstruction by using skin grafting and tattooing are the easiest and most common techniques. With the evolution of techniques and technology, perhaps the newer methods of NAC reconstruction can produce promising long-lasting aesthetically acceptable result with minimal morbidity.