Pancreas allograft biopsies procedure in the management of pancreas transplant recipients
Pancreas transplantation is an effective therapy for diabetic patients, which can significantly improve the survival rate and quality of life of diabetic patients. According to the international registration of pancreas transplantation center, the global total pancreas transplantation has reached more than 80,000 cases by 2017, including pure pancreas transplantation and simultaneous pancreas-kidney transplantation (SPK). With the development and application of a new type of immunosuppressant, with the gradual maturity of organ preservation technology and surgical technology, the pancreas transplantation has rapidly on a global scale. However, pancreas transplantation still has more problems than limit its development compared with other organ transplantation. For example, the early diagnosis and treatment of pancreatic rejection are of considerable significance to the prognosis of pancreas transplantation. Some surveillance methods of diagnosis have been used increasingly, among which the histopathological diagnosis is particularly important. The first Banff schema for the histological diagnosis of pancreas rejection has been published, which primarily dealt with the diagnosis of acute T-cell-mediated rejection (ACMR). In recent years, antibody- mediated rejection (AMR) has been more emphasized as the primary cause of graft failure. The Banff pancreas allograft rejection grading schema was updated in 2011 by a broad-based multidisciplinary panel, presenting comprehensive guidelines for the diagnosis of AMR.