Neuroblastoma image-defined risk factors in adrenal neuroblastoma: role of radiologist

Cecilia Lanza, Vittoria Galeazzi, Nicola Carboni, Alice De Berardinis, Luigi De Marino, Antonio Barile, Andrea Giovagnoni


Neuroblastoma, one of the most common extracranial solid malignancies in children, is often localized in the adrenal glands (49%). The staging system for prognostic purpose was one of the first points of disagreement, which led to the International Neuroblastoma Staging System (INSS) of 1986, revised in 1989, which relies on surgical staging. The limit of this classification was the different surgical resection, also done at interval times from diagnosis. To overcome this difficulty, a new staging system was made based on preoperative imaging by the International Neuroblastoma Risk Group (INRG) in 2009. This new staging system uses 20 Image-Defined Risk Factors (IDRFs) across multiple organ systems. The scope of this IDRFs is to predict surgical outcomes and, in addition with clinical data, to provide risk stratification. The INRG Staging System (INRGSS) relies on Imaging-Defined Risk Factors (IDRFs) that are determined before surgery or other therapy. With the application of the INRGSS the radiologist’s role in staging children with neuroblastoma increased. The review provides an overview of the INRGSS and the IDRFs in adrenal neuroblastoma.