Correlation between ADC values and Gleason score in evaluation of prostate cancer: multicentre experience and review of the literature
Prostate cancer (PCa) is one of the most common cancers in male population. Multiparametric prostate magnetic resonance imaging (mp-MRI) has assumed a primary role in the diagnosis of PCa, combining morphological and functional data. Among different sequences, functional diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) is a powerful clinical tool which provides information about tissue on a cellular level. However, there is a considerable overlap between either BPH (Benign Prostate Hypertrophy) and prostatic cancer condition, as a different DWI signal intensity could be shown in the normal architecture gland. Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) has shown an increasing accuracy in addition to the DWI analysis in detection and localization of PCa. Notably, ADC maps derived DWI sequences has shown an overall high correlation with Gleason score (GS), considering the importance of an accurate grading of focal lesion, as main predictor factor. Furthermore, beyond the comparative analysis with DWI, ADC values has proven to be an useful marker of tumor aggressiveness, providing quantitative information on tumor characteristics according with GS and Gleason pattern, even more strenuous data are needed in order to verify which ADC analysis is more accurate.