Bleeding complications after pancreatic surgery: interventional radiology management
Surgical intervention in the pancreas region is complex and carries the risk of complications, also of vascular nature. Bleeding after pancreatic surgery is rare but characterized by high mortality. This review reports epidemiology, classification, diagnosis and treatment strategies of hemorrhage occurring after pancreatic surgery, focusing on the techniques, roles and outcomes of interventional radiology (IR) in this setting. We then describe the roles and techniques of IR in the treatment of other less common types of vascular complications after pancreatic surgery, such as portal vein (PV) stenosis, portal hypertension and bleeding of varices.