Challenges of training in adrenal surgery

Oliver Gimm, Quan-Yang Duh


While adrenal tumors are common, adrenalectomy is rather uncommon. This is one reason for the many challenges regarding the training of adrenal surgery. Here we focus on issues that are most pertinent regarding training of the young surgeons performing adrenalectomy. Due to the very limited literature, what is presented is mainly based on personal experience and/or from the literature published for other surgical operations and subspecialties. The discussed challenges include indications for surgery, surgical approaches and extent, and intraoperative complications. With advances in adrenal surgery, we expect some old challenges to be resolved, and some new challenges to arise. These challenges will be faced in order to continue to help our younger trainee acquire the knowledge and skills to best care for our patients with adrenal diseases.