“Super-active surveillance”: MRI ultrasound fusion biopsy and ablation for less invasive management of prostate cancer
Multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI) of the prostate has allowed clinicians to better visualize and target suspicious lesions during biopsy. Targeted prostate biopsies give a more accurate representation of the true cancer volume and stage so that appropriate treatment or active surveillance can be selected. Advances in technology have led to the development of MRI and ultrasound fusion platforms used for targeted biopsies, monitoring cancer progression, and more recently for the application of focal therapy. Lesions visualized on mpMRI can be targeted for ablation with a variety of energy sources employed under both local and general anesthesia. Focal ablation may offer an alternative option for treating prostate cancer as compared to the well-established interventions of whole-gland radiation or prostatectomy. Focal ablation may also be an option for patients on active surveillance who wish to be even more “active” in their surveillance. In this review, we describe the advancements and development of fusion biopsies, the rationale behind focal therapy, and introduce focal ablative techniques for indolent prostate cancers (“super-active surveillance”), including cryoablation and focal laser ablation (FLA) and the subsequent MRI/biopsy surveillance.