Interventional radiology of the thyroid gland: critical review and state of the art
Thyroid nodules are a common incidental finding during a routinely ultrasound (US) exam unrelated to the thyroid gland in the healthy adult population with a prevalence of 20–76%. As treated before with surgery, in the last years new minimally invasive techniques have been developed as an alternative to surgery. The aim of this review, based on newly revised guidelines, is to provide some information regarding the basic principles, indications, materials, techniques, and results of mini-invasive procedures or treatments for thyroid nodules. We performed a narrative review including both newest and representative papers and guidelines based on the different procedures of ablation techniques developed in the last years for the diagnosis and the treatment of thyroid nodules. All examined papers referred very good results in term of volume nodule reduction, improvement in related symptoms and cosmetic problems, with a very low rate of complications and side effects for all the minimally invasive technique analyzed. Obviously, some differents between technique based on different kind of thyroid nodules and different indication were found. In conclusion, many thyroid nodules nowadays could be treated thanks to the advent of new mini-invasive technique that are less expensive and present a lower risk of major complications and side effects compared to surgery.