Intraoperative real-time localization of parathyroid gland with near infrared fluorescence imaging
Surgeons have cited difficulties in identifying the parathyroid glands (PG) during thyroidectomy. To overcome the limitation of naked eye, many studies on near-infrared fluorescence imaging of PGs have been introduced and suggested that fluorescence imaging is useful for both localizing PGs and evaluating their function. This imaging technique has been reported in two ways: (I) imaging using a fluorescent material called indocyanine green (ICG); and (II) autofluorescence using intrinsic fluorophores. These innovative and novel techniques are expected to have a significant impact on performing thyroid or parathyroid surgery. In this article, current papers that describe ICG fluorescence and autofluorescence imaging of PG during thyroid and parathyroid surgery are reviewed.