Understanding the factors associated with the surgical management of early breast cancer

Omar Z. Youssef, Hatem A. Azim Jr


Breast cancer is the most common cancer affecting women and the second common cause of cancer-related mortality (1). Recent advances in the field of breast cancer biology have revealed that breast cancer is a complex disease composed of at least four main subtypes at the molecular level (2-4). Each has distinct prognosis, and unique molecular portrait that governs tumor progression. Nevertheless, surgery continues to play a pivotal role in managing patients in the early setting.